Malaria News

Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 2: epitope mapping and fine specificity of human antibody response against non-polymorphic domains
Two long synthetic peptides representing the dimorphic and constant C-terminal domains of the two allelic families of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface proteins 2 are considered promising malaria vaccine candidates. The aim of the current study is to characterize the immune response (epitope mapping) in naturally exposed individuals and relate immune responses to the risk of clinical malaria. Data from this current study may contribute to a development of MSP2 vaccine candidates based on conserved and dimorphic regions thus bypassing the complexity of vaccine development related to the polymorphism of full-length MSP2.
19/12/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
Fast-changing genes help malaria hide in human body
A new study, which shows how malaria parasites behave when they live in human red blood cells, could explain why the deadly infection has proved so hard to beat. Scientists have found that Plasmodium falciparum parasites can rapidly change the proteins on the surface of their host cells in order to hide from the immune system. Around a million new and unrecognizable surface proteins can be created in every infected human every two days.
18/12/2014 2:10:10 PM  from Science Daily     Read More      Permalink
Global life expectancy six years longer than in 1990, study finds
People around the world lived on average to a ripe old age of 71.5 in 2013, more than six years longer than in 1990, thanks to falling death rates from cancer and heart disease in rich countries and better survival in poor countries from diarrhoea,
18/12/2014  from ABC Health     Read More      Permalink
Pooled PCR testing strategy and prevalence estimation of submicroscopic infections using Bayesian latent class models in pregnant women receiving intermittent preventive treatment at Machinga District Hospital, Malawi, 2010
Low malaria parasite densities in pregnancy are a diagnostic challenge. PCR provides high sensitivity and specificity in detecting low density of parasites, but cost and technical requirements limit its application in resources-limited settings. Pooling samples for PCR detection was explored to estimate prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection in pregnant women at delivery. Previous work uses gold-standard based methods to calculate sensitivity and specificity of tests, creating a challenge when newer methodologies are substantially more sensitive than the gold standard. Thus prevalence was estimated using Bayesian latent class models (LCMs) in this study.
18/12/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
The Central Role of cAMP in Regulating Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Invasion of Human Erythrocytes
by Amrita Dawn, Shailja Singh, Kunal R. More, Faiza Amber Siddiqui, Niseema Pachikara, Ghania Ramdani, Gordon Langsley, Chetan E. Chitnis All pathogenesis and death associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria is due to parasite-infected erythrocytes. Invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum merozoites requires specific interactions between host receptors and parasite ligands that are localized in apical organelles called micronemes. Here, we identify cAMP as a key regulator that triggers the timely secretion of microneme proteins enabling receptor-engagement and invasion.
18/12/2014  from PLoS     Read More      Permalink
Strengthening malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment in Namibia: a test of case management training interventions in Kavango Region
Despite its importance in control and elimination settings, malaria diagnosis rates tend to be low in many African countries. An operational research pilot was conducted in Namibia to identify the key barriers to appropriate diagnosis of malaria in public health facilities and to evaluate the effectiveness of various training approaches in improving the uptake and adherence to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). After identifying case management weaknesses through healthcare worker focus group discussions, training interventions were designed to address these barriers over a six-month period. The study had three intervention districts and one control within the Kavango region of Namibia where poor case management practices were observed.
18/12/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
Enantioselective metabolism of primaquine by human CYP2D6
Primaquine, currently the only approved drug for the treatment and radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria, is still used as a racemic mixture. Clinical use of primaquine has been limited due to haemolytic toxicity in individuals with genetic deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Earlier studies have linked its therapeutic effects to CYP2D6-generated metabolites. The aim of the current study was to investigate the differential generation of the CYP2D6 metabolites by racemic primaquine and its individual enantiomers. The metabolism of primaquine by human CYP2D6 and the generation of its metabolites display enantio-selectivity regarding formation of hydroxylated product profiles.
17/12/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
Pregnant women are a reservoir of malaria transmission in Blantyre, Malawi
During pregnancy, women living in malaria-endemic regions are at increased risk of malaria infection and can harbour chronic placental infections. Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTp) is administered to reduce malaria morbidity. It was hypothesized that the presence of placental malaria infection and SP-IPTp use would increase the risk of peripheral blood gametocytes, the parasite stage that is transmissible to mosquitoes. This would suggest that pregnant women may be important reservoirs of malaria transmission. Light microscopy was used to assess peripheral gametocytaemia in pregnant women enrolled in a longitudinal, observational study in Blantyre, Malawi to determine the association between placental malaria and maternal gametocytaemia.
17/12/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
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