Malaria News

The independent effect of living in malaria hotspots on future malaria infection: an observational study from Misungwi, Tanzania
As malaria transmission declines, continued improvements of prevention and control interventions will increasingly rely on accurate knowledge of risk factors and an ability to define high-risk areas and populations at risk for focal targeting of interventions. This paper explores the independent association between living in a hotspot and prospective risk of malaria infection. It is likely that targeting such hotspots with better coverage and improved malaria control strategies will result in more cost-efficient uses of resources to move towards malaria elimination.
21/11/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
Transmission patterns of Plasmodium falciparum by Anopheles gambiae in Benin
To better control malaria, the clear and urgent need is for improved data to inform decision makers, but in several African countries, there is a lack of baseline data on vectors and variation in the intensity of malaria transmission. This has resulted in the implementation of vector control efforts that ignore variation in vector behaviour and intensity of transmission, an approach that is most often not cost-effective. This study presents a detailed entomological description of mosquito distribution and variation in potentially transmissible contacts of Plasmodium falciparum following a south to north transect in Benin.MethodThe study was conducted in five locations where environmental parameters were different and malaria prevalence ranged between 14 and 51%.
21/11/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
Large-scale drivers of malaria and priority areas for prevention and control in the Brazilian Amazon region using a novel multi-pathogen geospatial model
Most of the malaria burden in the Americas is concentrated in the Brazilian Amazon but a detailed spatial characterization of malaria risk has yet to be undertaken. This article provides several contributions. From a methodological perspective, the benefits of jointly modelling multiple pathogens for spatial predictions were illustrated. In addition, maps of mean disease risk were contrasted with that of statistically significant disease clusters, highlighting the critical importance of uncertainty in determining disease hotspots. From an epidemiological perspective, forest cover and proximity to gold mining operations were important large-scale drivers of disease risk in the region.
20/11/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
A heavy legacy: offspring of malaria-infected mosquitoes show reduced disease resistance
Trans-generational effects of immune stimulation may have either adaptive (trans-generational immune priming) or non-adaptive (fitness costs) effects on offspring ability to fight pathogens. Anopheles coluzzii and its natural malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum were used to test how maternal parasite infection affected offspring resistance to the same parasite species. Daughters of exposed mothers had similar qualitative resistance, as measured by their ability to prevent infection, relative to those of control mothers. However, maternal disease exposure altered offspring quantitative resistance, measured as the ability to limit parasite development, with mosquitoes of infected mothers suffering slightly increased parasite intensity compared to controls.
20/11/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
Determinants of the use of insecticide-treated bed nets on islands of pre- and post-malaria elimination: an application of the health belief model in Vanuatu
Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an integral piece of any malaria elimination strategy, but compliance remains a challenge and determinants of use vary by location and context. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a tool to explore perceptions and beliefs about malaria and ITN use. Insights from the model can be used to increase coverage to control malaria transmission in island contexts. A mixed methods study consisting of a questionnaire and interviews was carried out in July 2012 on two islands of Vanuatu: Ambae Island where malaria transmission continues to occur at low levels, and Aneityum Island, where an elimination programme initiated in 1991 has halted transmission for several years.
20/11/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
Factors affecting providers' delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy: a five-country analysis of national service provision assessment surveys
Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) delivered during antenatal care (ANC) visits has been shown to be a highly efficacious and cost-effective intervention. Given the high rates of ANC attendance in sub-Saharan Africa, the current low IPTp coverage represents considerable missed opportunities. The objective of this study was to explore factors affecting provider's delivery of IPTp during ANC consultations. Data from five nationally representative service provision assessment surveys informed the statistical analyses (Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda; 2006-2010). Poisson regression models with robust/clustered standard errors were used to estimate the effect of different determinants on IPTp delivery from 4,971 observed ANC consultations.
20/11/2014  from Malaria Journal     Read More      Permalink
Free market talk with Keynesian action - The Drum (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
Being a free-marketeer always invokes a fair degree of contradiction. It means saying things like governments don't create wealth, people do. And yet politicians - including those in the Abbott Government - love to hold press conferences in front of
19/11/2014  from ABC Health     Read More      Permalink
ANU chemists manufacture rare medical chemicals with new method, offering hope for cheaper drugs
Chemists at ANU discover a new way to manufacture rare chemicals that occur naturally in coral, and use the method to make a powerful anti-inflammatory drug.
19/11/2014  from ABC Health     Read More      Permalink
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